miércoles, 16 de febrero de 2011

Unit 3: Complex clauses and linkers

Complex clauses:

A complex causes give us extra information about a sentence. It is introduced by a linking word o phrase. These words and phrases are also knows as 'linkers'. Complex causes can express a range of meanings depending on the linker that is used.
Types of complex causes:
• Contrast: although (a pesar de), though (sin embargo), in spite of the fact ( a pesar de), despite the fact that (a pesar de que).
• Purpose: so(that)(de manera que)
• Reason: because( por que), as(como), since(desde)
• Result:so...that(de manera que), such...that(de tal manera que)
When a complex causes begins a sentence, we use a comma to separate the two clauses.

We can use the following linkers to express a contrast:although, though, despite, despite the fact that, in spite of, in spite of the fact that. We use these linkers in the following ways.
• although/ though + clauses: Although and though have a same meaning, but although is more common in formal English.
• despite the fact that/ in spite fact that + clauses.
• despite/ in spite og + noun/ pronoun or gerund.

We can use the following linkers to talk about teh purpose of an action: in order(not) to, so as(not) to, so, to. We use the linkers in the following ways:
• to/ in order(not) to/ so as(not) to + infinitive. The all have the same meaning, but you can't use TO in negative.
• so/ so that + clause. These have the same meaning. we often omit the word THAT in formal or spoken English. We often use these linkers with can/ cant'/could/ will/ will not/ wouldn't.

We can use the following linkers to talk abaut the reason for action or event: as, because, because of, since. We use these linkers in the following ways:
• as/because/ since + clause.
• because of + noun/ noun phrase.