miércoles, 16 de febrero de 2011

Unit 3: Complex clauses and linkers

Complex clauses:

A complex causes give us extra information about a sentence. It is introduced by a linking word o phrase. These words and phrases are also knows as 'linkers'. Complex causes can express a range of meanings depending on the linker that is used.
Types of complex causes:
  • Contrast: although (a pesar de), though (sin embargo), in spite of the fact ( a pesar de), despite the fact that (a pesar de que).
  • Purpose: so(that)(de manera que)
  • Reason: because( por que), as(como), since(desde)
  • Result:so...that(de manera que), such...that(de tal manera que)
When a complex causes begins a sentence, we use a comma to separate the two clauses.

Linkers of contrast:

We can use the following linkers to express a contrast:although, though, despite, despite the fact that, in spite of, in spite of the fact that. We use these linkers in the following ways.
  • although/ though + clauses: Although and though have a same meaning, but although is more common in formal English.
  • despite the fact that/ in spite fact that + clauses.
  • despite/ in spite og + noun/ pronoun or gerund.

Linkers of purpose ad reason:

We can use the following linkers to talk about teh purpose of an action: in order(not) to, so as(not) to, so, to. We use the linkers in the following ways:
  • to/ in order(not) to/ so as(not) to + infinitive. The all have the same meaning, but you can't use TO in negative.
  • so/ so that + clause. These have the same meaning. we often omit the word THAT in formal or spoken English. We often use these linkers with can/ cant'/could/ will/ will not/ wouldn't.

We can use the following linkers to talk abaut the reason for action or event: as, because, because of, since. We use these linkers in the following ways:
  • as/because/ since + clause.
  • because of + noun/ noun phrase.
Linkers of result:

We can use the following linkers to talk about the result or effect of something:so...that, such...that. We use these linkers in the following ways.
  • so + adverb + that clause.
  • so + adverb + that clause.
  • such + a(n) + adjective + singular noun + that clause.
  • such + adjective + uncountable noun + that clause.

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